Vatican City, officially known as the State of the Vatican City and known in Italian as Stato Della Città del Vaticano, is an enclave in Rome that serves as the seat of the Roman Catholic Church and is located on the west bank of the Tiber River. The smallest fully sovereign nation-state in the world is Vatican City. Except for the southeast, where St. Peter's Square is located, its boundaries are formed by mediaeval and Renaissance walls (Piazza San Pietro).
The pope lives inside the city limits in the Vatican palace. The Roman Catholic Church's executive branch, in which the pope serves as the bishop of Rome, is known as the Holy See. As a result, Catholics worldwide are subject to the Holy See's jurisdiction. It has resided in Vatican City since 1929, which was created as a separate nation to allow the pope to wield his worldwide power.
The pope's security has been the responsibility of the Swiss Guards since 1506, and Vatican City has its banking system, pharmacy, astronomical observatory, radio station, gardens, and telephone system. Most necessities, such as food, water, energy, and gas, must be imported.
The Lateran Treaty, signed by the fascist Italian government in 1929, affirmed Vatican City's sovereign independence. Upon being chosen as the leader of the Roman Catholic Church, the pope has the authority to exercise sovereignty. He possesses complete administrative, legislative, and judicial power within the city.