South of the equator in east-central Africa is the nation of Burundi. One of the few in Africa whose borders were not set by colonial powers is the landlocked nation, a former kingdom.
Most people of Burundi are Hutu, who have traditionally been farmers. However, the Tutsi minority has always had sway over the army and the majority of the economy, particularly the profitable worldwide coffee export. There are few significant cultural differences between the two groups, and both speak Rundi (Kirundi). It highlights the long-standing intimate cultural and racial relationships among the Burundian peoples and is unusual in sub-Saharan Africa.
Burundi is bordered to the north by Rwanda, to the east and south by Tanzania, to the southwest by Lake Tanganyika, and the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Western Rift Valley's eastern flank is part of Burundi's topography. At Mount Heha, the highest point in the nation, a range of mountains and high plateaus made of old Precambrian rock climb to a height of 9,055 feet (2,760 metres). The Rusizi River, which divides Burundi from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is part of the confined Imbo valley, which stretches southward from Rwanda to Lake Tanganyika in the northwest.
Burundi's climate is significantly influenced by elevation, which drastically modifies its tropical nature. The country's typical high altitude results in very chilly temperatures, with an average of approximately 70 °F (21 °C). The central plateau region throughout the year typically dip below 60 °F (15 °C) at night. The yearly average is slightly higher at lower elevations, like Bujumbura in the Imbo valley.