Georgia, also known as Georgian Sakartvelo, is a Transcaucasia nation situated on the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountains' principal crest near the easternmost point of the Black Sea. It borders Russia on the north and northeast, Azerbaijan on the east and southeast, Armenia and Turkey on the south, and the Black Sea on the west. Georgia has three ethnic enclaves: South Ossetia in the north, Ajaria in the southwest, and Abkhazia, in the northwest (main city Sokhumi) (principal city Tskhinvali). Tbilisi serves as Georgia's capital (Tiflis).
The Georgian people have deep historical origins and a rich and ancient cultural legacy. A strong Georgian kingdom existed during the medieval era, reaching its height. The Russian Empire acquired Georgia in the 19th century following a protracted period of rule by the Turks and the Persians. Between 1918 to 1921, Georgia was a sovereign state before being absorbed into the Soviet Union. Georgia became a constituent (union) republic in 1936 and remained one until the Soviet Union's demise. The Georgian economy was developed and diversified throughout the Soviet era. Georgia, one of the nations most committed to independence, declared autonomy on November 19, 1989, followed by independence on April 9, 1991.
Georgia is subject to the persistent impact of warm, moist air from the Black Sea while being shielded from cold air intrusions from the north by the Caucasian barrier. Georgia's west coast experiences a humid subtropical marine climate, while east Georgia's climate ranges from a dry subtropical type to a humid one.
Georgia has a tremendous variety of sceneries thanks to its position and varied topography. The lush greenery of the damp, subtropical Black Sea coasts is located not far from the mountains' never-ending snowfields. The green of alpine meadows alternates with the deeper tones of forested valleys as deep canyons, and rapid rivers give place to parched steppes.
Most likely, the Georgians, Kartveli (derived from their Persian name, Gorj), have always inhabited this area, which they call Sakartvelo. The intermixtures and successions of the Caucasus region can be seen in the ethnic diversity of modern-day Georgia. Georgians make up about four out of every five persons; the remainder includes Armenians, Russians, Azerbaijanis, and, in smaller numbers, Ossetes, Greeks, Abkhazians, and others.
The Kartvelian (South Caucasian) family of languages includes the Georgian language. There are numerous dialects and their alphabet, which is estimated to have developed about the fifth century. Minority communities speak various other Caucasian languages, many of which are unwritten.
Many Georgians belong to the Georgian Orthodox Church, an autonomous Eastern Orthodox denomination. Additionally, there are communities of Muslims, Jews, Catholics, Russian Orthodox, and Armenian Apostolic believers.